Euphorbia cactus is quite popular in many countries of the world. You can meet a cactus of this species not only at home, but also in the forest, in wild meadows, where people do not look often. Such a common location is associated with the peculiarity of the cactus. Since this species belongs to the succulent family, it has the property of accumulating moisture for survival and does not require careful care. Euphorbia got its name from Carl Linnaeus in the 18th century. The cactus was mentioned in the annals of that period of time.
A distinctive feature of milkweed is the presence of milky juice, which is found in the leaves of the plant. The milky juice is white and poisonous. It is noted that when the liquid touches the skin, a burn may occur. The milky juice of milkweed is widely used for cosmetic and medical purposes. So, a small amount of specially processed juice is added to face products, as well as various ointments, including those for hands.
The plant is most common in Africa, Asia, America, the Mediterranean and southern Russia.
Canary spurge (Euphorbia canariensis)
Euphorbia Canarian, has the appearance of a shrub, having a size of up to 12 meters in height. The branches of this species have a ribbed structure, the size of which reaches 5 centimeters in diameter. On the ribs of the plant there are small tubercles, under which is the base of the leaf. The spines of milkweed are on small tubercles, above the base of the leaf and are brown in color. The size of the spines, as a rule, reaches 0.5 centimeters in length. Cactus leaves are rudimentary in shape.
Triangular spurge (Euphorbia trigona)
Euphorbia triangularis the most common species grown at home. This type of cactus differs in its size. It is noted that triangular spurge can grow up to one meter in three years. Branching, the plant mainly forms at a certain age, usually after three years of life. The stems of the cactus have a trihedral appearance, which is why it was called the triangular Euphorbia. The ribs at the stem are slightly flattened. The plant also has small tubercles on the stems, which serve as the basis for the growth of spines. Another distinguishing feature of this species is that it grows a double spine, and not one. The plant has a pouring of small size, elongated shape.
Euphorbia triangular needs good support, as it has a weak root system. For this species, it is recommended to use a tall pot, most of which should be filled with drainage.
It is noted that the plant is not whimsical in care. It takes root well at home, blooms in partial shade and in diffused light. Loves top dressing and watering, especially in the summer season. Reproduction in this species occurs with the help of cuttings.
Euphorbia tirucalli (Euphorbia tirucalli)
Euphorbia tirucalli, is a real tree ranging in size from 8 to 10 meters in height. The tree has branches up to seven millimeters thick, bright green in color, smooth in structure, without thorns. The branches are cylindrical. The leaves of this tree are linear. It is noted that fallen leaves leave small dots on the branches.
At home, this species, as a rule, grows from two to three meters. Propagation occurs through the use of cuttings. Euphorbia tirukkali loves the light, blooms in partial shade. This species tolerates winter drought well. In the summer months, it requires abundant watering, but it is worth waiting for the topsoil to drain before the next watering, otherwise the plant may be harmed.
Euphorbia multifaceted (Euphorbia polygona)
Euphorbia multifaceted is a low succulent. The size of this species usually does not exceed half a meter in height. The plant is branching, has cylindrical or spherical branches with numerous ribs. The ribs of the plant can be counted up to 20, have a sharp and wavy structure. As a rule, there is a stratum corneum on the ribs, which is covered with numerous dark tubercles, which serve for the germination of single spines. The leaves of the plant have a rudimentary shape. Euphorbia multifaceted gets along well at home. The plant grows well in shaded light. He also loves feeding and watering. It is noted that watering should be carried out twice as often in the summer. However, when watering, you need to carefully monitor the soil. The process of watering the succulent should be carried out only when the soil is in a dried state. At other times of the year, watering is carried out in moderate amount.
White-veined Euphorbia (Euphorbia leuconeura)
Common home view. It has a long one with several ribs, covered with leaves to the top. The leaves are oblong oval with white veins. Flowering is inconspicuous, actively forms seeds, which then reproduces. The juice is bitter, white and poisonous.
Caring for milkweed in the first place requires safety. Since the plant contains milky juice, which contains poisonous substances that can harm a person.
Possible consequences that occur after interaction with milky juice:
- Violation of the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract;
- Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the eyes and nose.
Therefore, gloves should be used when working with this plant. After completing the work, you need to thoroughly wash your hands and face to prevent accidental contact with poisonous juice.
Euphorbia, like all succulents, is not demanding to care for. One has only to observe the correct watering process and observe the peduncle.
Lighting and temperature
Euphorbia loves sunlight, but can also bloom in shade. It is recommended to put the plant on the windows of the south and east directions, for optimal absorption of sunlight.
The recommended temperature for this succulent in summer is 22-26 degrees, in winter it is required to lower the temperature to 16-19 degrees.
Euphorbia is a succulent, so waterlogging the soil is detrimental to it. Due to excessive moisture in the soil, the process of rotting of the roots of the plant begins, which leads to its death.
In winter, watering should be done infrequently, as the temperature contributes to the accumulation of sufficient moisture in the soil. Euphorbia is triangular, does not require a lot of watering, but it is recommended to spray it.
Soil and nutrition of milkweed
The soil for milkweed should match the required soil for all succulents. If the soil is purchased, then you should buy a special soil for cacti and succulents. If the soil is created independently, then you need to make a mixture of the following components:
- Take sod or deciduous land;
- Add brick chips, it is worth noting that it should be small.
To obtain the finished soil, the components should be mixed in equal proportions. Then let the mixture stand for a certain time.
Fertilizing milkweed occurs once a month, and the period of active growth of the plant. Fertilizers should be complex, specially designed for cacti and succulents.
Euphorbia transplantation should take place in the spring season, since it is at this time of the year that the active growth of the plant begins. Young spurges are transplanted once a year, adult plants are transplanted only when the roots of the succulent come out of the pot. It is noted that the top layer of soil needs to be replanted every year.
For transplanting, it is worth taking loose soil. Since the root system of this succulent is superficial, you need to pay attention to the size of the new pot. The pot should be larger than the previous one and not deep. For normal plant growth, drainage is required.
The flowering of this succulent falls on the period from March to early autumn. Flowers usually differ depending on the type of milkweed. In most species, the flowers bloom are not large in color from yellow to dark lilac. The flowers of the plant, as a rule, do not cause an allergic reaction. However, it is worth remembering the milky juice contained in this plant. Gloves are required when handling flowers. In case of accidental contact of juice with the skin, it is necessary to immediately wash the affected area with warm water.
The dormant period for this succulent falls on the winter months, since it is during this period that the plant receives enough moisture and does not need watering and top dressing.
The process of reproduction of this succulent occurs depending on its type. Reproduction can be carried out using cuttings and seeds. It is noted that species grown at home, as a rule, propagate by using cuttings. Species that do not have shoots reproduce only by seeds.
When using seeds, it should be borne in mind that the seeds of the plant are stored for no more than a year, after which they become unusable. To grow milkweed using seeds, perform the following steps:
- Sow the seeds in an earthen container. The process should take place in early spring;
- Large seeds are buried in the ground;
- The container is covered with foil.
The growing process requires a temperature of 22 degrees. The first shoots, as a rule, appear in two to three weeks.
Propagation by cuttings is convenient both for indoor spurges and for those growing in natural conditions. For the propagation process using cuttings, the following steps are required:
- The cuttings are cut during the pruning process;
- The shoots must be at least 10 centimeters in size;
- The lower leaves are removed;
- The removed leaves are dried, as a rule, one or two days;
- Then, planted in the sand.
Sand needs to be moistened. Cuttings can be covered with glass. After three to four weeks, the cuttings usually take root and are transplanted into pots.
Euphorbia is not whimsical in care, however, failure to comply with basic care requirements can lead to plant disease.
Diseases that occur in milkweed:
- Leaves turn yellow and fall off. This phenomenon is associated with improper care of the succulent. If there is a fall and dryness of the milkweed leaves, then this indicates a lack of light, watering or the presence of dry air;
- Gray rot. This phenomenon is associated with excessive humidity;
- Tobacco mosaic. This phenomenon is characterized by the appearance of a pattern of yellow-red-brown colors. Usually, this is a sign of whitefly damage.
Various insects can cause harm to the plant, from which spurge should be carefully protected.
- Aphid. The appearance of this insect on a plant is characterized by deformation and leaf fall;
- Whitefly. The first signs of the appearance of this pest is the appearance of white and yellow spots on the leaf of the plant;
- The appearance of a red mealybug on a plant is characterized by the accumulation of white insects on the roots of the plant.
Euphorbia is one of the favorite plants among flower growers, which is popular in many countries of the world. The plant belongs to the genus of succulents, therefore it has the property of retaining moisture, which makes it more resistant to various temperature fluctuations.